Secret Agent X-9

Created by Dashiell Hammett
and Alex Raymond

Despite being a collaboration between possibly the greatest private eye writer of all time, and one of the all-time great comic strip artists, the action/adventure strip Secret Agent X-9 was always something of a disappointment.

The strip was originally conceived by King Features to compete with Dick Tracy‘s growing popularity, but somewhere along the line, they decided it wasn’t enough for the hero of this new strip to be a hard-boiled private eye. He would also be a secret agent. G-Men were doing boffo box office and one of the previous year’s more popular films had been Private Detective 62, based on a series of stories that appeared in Black Mask, written by Hammett’s drinking buddy, Raoul Whitfield, about a disgraced government agent, Donald Free, who becomes a private eye.

Alas, somewhere along the line, the competing visions of Hammett and King Features came to a head. Hammett evidently wanted to write a series about a private eye (no surprise there–by 1933, he had already made a name for himself as creator of Sam Spade, The Continental Op and Nick and Nora Charles). But King wanted a strip about a nameless, mysterious secret agent, and they were waving a lot of cash around.

Bill Blackbeard, in his intro to Dashiell Hammett’s Secret Agent X-9, a handsome 1990 volume which collected the Hammett/Raymond sequences, suggests that most of the irregularities and gaffes were the result of King Features’ rewriting (Blackbeard called them “jerry-scripting”) of Hammett’s original script.

“Between the delivery of the first Hammett scenario to the syndicate and the transference to Alex Raymond, a considerable admixture of cuts and alterations seems to have occurred. The notion of X-9 as a government agent using a private detective role as a front was thrown out. The King concept of a completely mysterious agent was clumsily substituted.”

The result was a host of inconsistencies and continuity errors that plagued the early months of the strip, as X-9’s occupation veered back and forth between secret agent and private eye. The first continuity was a mess. We had X-9, a nameless government agent (with a secret identity as a private eye?) who’s called upon (his non-existent name was in the book?) to help a rich man out of a jam. And then he tells his client, “Call me Dexter. It’s not my name but it will do.”

Seems some criminals know and fear him, but the police have never heard of him. Still, he waltzes in and takes charge of a murder investigation, no questions asked.

The strip was popular enough, even inspiring a film adaptation and a 13-part serial (starring a very young Lloyd Bridges), but neither Hammett nor Raymond were happy with the strip itself, and both were eager to quit King Features. Within a year, Hammett was gone (his contract having expired) having only scripted four continuities. Leslie Charteris, creator of The Saint, took over the scripting chores. A year later, Raymond also split, but was soon back on the comic page with Flash Gordon and Jungle Jim, thereby ensuring himself a place in the comic strip hall of fame. And just to make sure he wasn’t forgotten,  in 1946 he launched Rip Kirby, his own (and far more successful) take on the private eye genre.

In 1938, Charles Flanders began to draw the X-9 strip, and he was lucky enough to be backed up by some rather good scripts. But Hammett’s original concept of a hard-boiled private eye was toast by then. More attention was given to police procedures, investigations and counterespionage, and Dexter became, at last, a full-fledged secret agent.

The strip, handled by other writers and artists, meandered on, concentrating on action and adventure, and proved to be quite successful in Europe. Somewhere along the line, probably 1960 or so, the once-cool X-9 tag was dropped completely, and it became Secret Agent Corrigan (I guess it sounded better than Secret Agent Dexter). The strip’s last blaze of glory was probably from 1967-80, when it was written by Archie Goodwin and drawn by Al Williamson (who also handled the daily Star Wars strip). The Secret Agent Whatever strip finally ended in 1996.

It certainly had a good long run. Under Hammett, the strip was, at times, a riveting drama, full of rough action and adventure. If they’d let him write it the way he wanted, who knows what might have happened? A good, but ultimately flawed example of the hard-boiled private eye. But it coulda been a contender….


  • “Agent X-9 has a television presence as well.  In the episode “Identity Crisis” of Columbo(the one with Patrick McGoohan and Leslie Nielsen), David White played the director of the CIA.  He showed his card to the Lieutenant, and it identified him as ‘Phillip Corrigan, Agent X-9.’ So several decades on from his heyday and he was now the man in charge…”
    — Toby O’B (August 2008, INNER TOOB)


    (aka “Secret Agernt Corrigan”)
    (1934-1996, King Features)
    First strip: January 22, 1934
    Last strip: Frbruary 10, 1996
    Created by Dashiell Hammett and Alex Raymond
    Writers: Dashiell Hammett, Do Moore, Leslie Charteris, Mel Graff, Archie Goodwin
    Artists: Alex Raymond, Charles Flanders, Austin Briggs, Mel Graff, Bob Lewis, Al Williamson, George Evans

    • Continuities written by Hammett:
    • “You’re The Top”
    • “Mystery of the Silent Guns”
    • “The Martyn Case”
    • “The Torch Car Case”



  • Secret Agent X-9 (1972; edited by Woody Gelman, intro by Bill Blackbeard)
  • Secret Agent X-9: The Detective Classic from the Comics’ Golden Age (1976)Buy this book
  • Dashiell Hammett’s Secret Agent X-9 (1983) Buy this book
  • Dashiell Hammett & Alex Raymond: Secret Agent X-9 (1990; intro by Bill Blackbeard) Buy this book
  • Secret Agent X-9 (Library of American Comics) (2011) Buy this book
  • Reprints strips from January 22, 1934 through October 31, 1936, collecting the complete Hammett/Raymond strips, plus subsequent stories by Raymond and Leslie Charteris, as well as the Charteris stories drawn by Charles Flanders.


  • SECRET AGENT X-9 | Buy this DVD
    (1937, Universal)
    12-part serial (232 minutes)
    Based on the comic strip created by Dashiell Hammett & Alex Raymond
    Story by Charles Flanders
    Screenplay by Wyndham Gittens, Norman S. Hall, Leslie Swabacker, Ray Trampe
    Directed by Ford Beebe and Clifford Smith
    Starring Scott Kolk as SECRET AGENT X-9
    Also starring Jean Rogers, Larry J. Blake, Monte Blue, Henry Brandon, Lon Chaney Jr., Robert Dalton, Lynn Gilbert, Ben Hewlett, Max Hoffman Jr., Henry Hunter, Bob Kortman, Leonard Lord, David Oliver, Edward Piel Sr., George Shelley

    • “Part One: Modern Pirates”
    • “Part Two: The Ray That Blinds”
    • “Part Three: Man of Many Faces”
    • “Part Four: The Listening Shadow”
    • “Part Five: False Fires”
    • “Part Six: The Dragnet”
    • “Part Seven: Sealed Lips”
    • “Part Eight: Exhibit ‘A'”
    • “Part Nine: The Masquerader”
    • “Part Ten: The Forced Lie”
    • “Part Eleven: The Enemy Camp”
    • “Part Twelve: Crime Does Not Pay”
  • SECRET AGENT X-9 | Buy this DVD
    (1945, Universal)
    13-part serial
    Based on the comic strip created by Dashiell Hammett & Alex Raymond
    Story by Joseph O’Donnell and Harold C. Wire
    Screenplay by Harold C. Wire and Patricia Harper
    Directed by Lewis D. Collins and Ray Taylor
    Starring Lloyd Bridges as SECRET AGENT X-9
    Also starring Keye Luke, Barry Bernard, Budd Buster, Luke Chan, Jack Cheatham, George Chesebro, Bob Chinn, Edmund Cobb, Ann Codee, Benson Fong, Arno Frey, Samuel S. Hinds, Victoria Horne, Cy Kendall, Eddie Luke, Clarence Lung, George Lynn, Ferdinand Munier, Jack Overman, Gene Roth, Jan Wiley
    Available as a 2-DVD set, featuring an interview with Beau Bridges and Max Allan Collins, and further commentary by Collins, plus biographies, filmographies, photo gallery and previews of other serials.

    • “Part One: Torpedo Rendezvous”
    • “Part Two: Ringed by Fire (aka”The Flaming Lake”)
    • “Part Three: Death Curve”
    • “Part Four: Floodlight Murder”
    • “Part Five: Doom Downgrade”
    • “Part Six: Strafed by a Zero”
    • “Part Seven: High Pressure Deadline”
    • “Part Eight: The Dropping Floor”
    • “Part Nine: The Danger Point”
    • “Part Ten: Japanese Burialv
    • “Part Eleven: Fireworks for Deadmen”
    • “Part Twelve: Big Gun Fusillade”
    • “Part Thirteen: Zero Minute”


    (1994, BBC Radio 5)
    4 30-minute episodes
    Based on the comic strip created by Dashiell Hammett and Alez RaymondProduced by Chris Wallis
    Adapted by Mark Brisenden
    Starring Stuart Milligan as SECRET AGENT X-9
    Also starring Connie Booth, William Hootkins, Rachel Power, Peter Marinker, Michael John Paliotti, John Guerrasio, Bruce McGregor, Clive Rowe
    Supposedly they based this onthe strip’s first arc from 1934.

    • “Murder Mansion” (January 1994)
    • “Carnage at Sea” (February 1994)
    • “The Powers That Be” (March 1994)
    • “You’re the Top” (April 1994)


  • June 23, 2021
    Two legends, one comic strip, one confused private eye. Possibly Hammett’s last sustained bit of writing, and one of Raymond’s first gigs.
Respectfully submitted by Kevin Burton Smith.

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